Эргашев Э. Зарубежный опыт управления инвестиционной деятельностью в аграрном секторе экономики / Э. Эргашев, М. Бозорова, Д. Кадирова // Экономика и бизнес: теория и практика – 2017. – №5. – С. 257-259
FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF INVESTMENT ACTIVITY MANAGEMENT
IN AGRICULTURAL SECTOR OF ECONOMICS
E. Ergashev, associate professor
M. Bozorova, associate professor
D. Kadirova, associate professor
Tashkent financial institute
Abstract. This article examines the main provisions in the management and control of investment activities in the agricultural sector of the economy. The authors describe the experience of leading agrarian countries in the issue of state regulation of investment activity. The results obtained made it possible to formulate a number of proposals for improving the efficiency of management of investment activities in agriculture.
Keywords: farmer, dehkanism, modernization, economic entities, infrastructure, investment.
If we look at the experience of developed countries, in particular, the sustainable development of the agricultural sector of the economy, in many ways, is an important role in the sustainable development of the investment market. Note that the real sector of the economy, including agriculture, capital support from the state is carried out by attracting them to regulate economy in nature.
Of course, the investment market is regulated by the government control and management in the following areas:
a) redistribution of income
b) to make an adjustment of the distribution of resources in order to influence the GDP structure
c) to stabilize the economy
If redistribution of income through investment is assigned with a minimum level of income of the farm, to make sure that, in order to maintain the level of prices, the price — pricing increase of farmer’s income is supported by means of the proposal, as well as agricultural products in the market place. In the allocation of public policy for agricultural products, manufacturer of the capital market creates the conditions for participation in macroeconomic terms, making acceptable to them. The activities of the institutions of the state of the stock market can be the backup storage issues and working on other tasks. Relying on data from various sources, the investment management activities in the agricultural sector following the US model can be identified.
American model of management of investment activity in the agricultural sector, the United States and Canada for specific countries, to support the production of agricultural products is based on the concept of providing the most favorable conditions for them. For example, the US federal budget allocated to agriculture contributions to the direct payment made in the form of: the farmers soft loans, tax breaks for investments in extending credit to return, and others. The national credit system for farmers is managed and controlled by commercial banks and insurance companies, being more than half of the total loans.
US investment in the agricultural sector is managed through a system of taxation. The tax system benefits the development of agricultural production, increasing productivity, improving the efficiency of the earth, ensuring the reliable process of service. For example, the income tax for farmers, unlike other manufacturers, after the real income of the business and other types of business, is planned in envisaged financial planning. Farmers’ income from all current expenses, even if they are not directly related to the production of the product, is led to a deduction, and in this way, they determine the amount of real income. In order to minimize the amount of taxable income of the farmers, some of them with the same types of investments as a means of production, are estimated to increase the number of livestock (cattle, wine purchase to increase the production of mulch and conservation expenses) for the current expenses of the event and are applied throughout the year. Reclamation costs, that are included to protect land and water resources, shall not be subject to tax on the cost of cattle feed and the total amount of the revenue growth.
The flow of capital in the agricultural sector is an important facet of the results of effective investment management fee and the fund is accomplished with the system. The sector of investment development activity in the country is characterized directly by the resources. It is designed for the development of the agricultural sector and the formation of the Fund.
Canadian experience in the management of investment activity is determined in agriculture as a whole experience. The country’s natural climatic and economic conditions in the management of agriculture are agro aimed at stabilizing the flow of capital, and competitiveness of agricultural products to consumers is cycled and maintained in the domestic market. Until recently, the main agricultural market management, capital and product placement in Canada are considered as the establishment of the border between the regions of the country. Currently, Canadian law — the legal framework with the adoption of a single body, is applied in capital investment and production in all regions of the country by establishing a set of general rules. In the only investment climate, Canadian farmers increase the competitiveness of the farmers of their main competitors in the United States. The main feature of agricultural policy of Canada is to manage the sale of food and agricultural products, the government directly increase them rather than through a direct association of producers and cooperative unions. Moreover, the government supports through state subsidies, and subsidies to the producers of agricultural products, providing loans with a state guarantee. The economy of China has the experience in the management of investments in agricultural sector and also has an important role, such as, the state budget (in the form of loans through state banks), the collective funds of enterprises and farmers in agricultural funds. The main investment in agriculture is directed to the businesses and farmers, being arisen from the funds, because their share of the total capital is considered as 50%. To support agricultural production, the state budget for capital investments is allocated at the expense of the funds of the state budget like agriculture, forestry and fishing, livestock and irrigation construction, scientific and technical innovations, in order to improve production as well as the establishment of the costs associated with funding allocated. The main task – to revive the farmers and the local authorities through the expansion of the flow of investments in agriculture. Subsequently, the state increases the scope of the agriculture with the service industry capital investment. This is a way for the state to protect the interests of its own population in all sectors of the economy, especially, in agriculture it should keep the strategic aims. These aims are the country’s food security, the development of scientific and technical processes, to achieve all the normal management of the economy as a whole. Acting in accordance with the function of government as well as business entity, the economic rights and duties assigned to make them cleared out. In developed countries, the results of the study in the experience of small businesses show that the practice of commercial banks, micro-lending for small businesses in priority sectors of the economy is one of the important interests of the necessary facilities to reduce the credit risk on the loans given to them by the state financial support. In developed countries, such as Germany, Austria, France, the interest rates on loans are issued by the commercial banks to agricultural enterprises, and in many cases, at the expense of subsidies with 50 percent of the state budget. As a result, first of all, the interest rates which are paid on commercial bank loans in a timely manner, increase the possibility of full compensation. Secondly, the main credit will increase the possibility of recovery of the amount of the debt, because of the interest rate on the loan value.
Therefore, the higher the level, the higher the possibility of the resumption of lending. So, at the expense of the state budget for the priority sectors of the economy by commercial banks in interest rates, micro credits, to small businesses and enterprise subsidies, would increases the possibility of the return of the loan, and the future of these small businesses will lead to further expansion of production capacity.
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ЗАРУБЕЖНЫЙ ОПЫТ УПРАВЛЕНИЯ ИНВЕСТИЦИОННОЙ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТЬЮ В АГРАРНОМ СЕКТОРЕ ЭКОНОМИКИ
Э. Эргашев, доцент
М. Бозорова, доцент
Д. Кадирова, доцент
Ташкентский финансовый институт
(Ташкент, г. Узбекистана)
Аннотация. Данная статья посвещена вопросам роли государства в управлении и контроле инвестиционной деятельности в аграрном секторе экономики. Авторами описывается опыт ведущих аграрных стран в вопросе государственного регулирования инвестиционной активности. Полученные результаты позволили сформулировать ряд предложений по повышению эффективности управления инвестиционной деятельностью в сельском хозяйстве.
Ключевые слова: фермер, дехканство, модернизация, хозяйственные субъекты, инфраструктура, инвестиция.